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indian history and world

Pre Historic Ages Stone Age
• Pre - historic period is divided into three sections- Stone age, Bronze age and Iron age
 • Stone age is divided into three periods i.e., Palaeolithic Age, Mesolithic Age and Neolithic Age.
• Lower Palaeolithic Age covers the greater part of the Ice Age.
• Its people used to eat fruits, birds and raw animal flesh etc.
• The tools were usually made of hard rock.
• In Middle Palaeolithic age a bit change occurred in the shape of tools made of stones or bones.
• In Upper Palaeolithic age, human lived as nomadic hunter gatherers.
• Mesolithic Age was an intermediate stage in the stone age. It ended with the introduction of agriculture.
• Neolithic age was an age of polished tool culture.
• Tool making became an important profession and a variety of polished tools were manufactured.
• They learnt the art of pottery and their pots were well made and decorated with paintings.
• They discovered the art of producing fire by the friction of stones and the wheel was also an important discovery of this age. Bronze Age It began with the development of Indus valley civilization around 3000 BC and continued up to 1300 BC.
 • People started using weapons and agricultural tools made of Bronze, an alloy of copper and tin.
• It had opened the trade networks of Mesopotamia civilization to reach out in various directions.
• The age came to an end primarily because of the fact that the metals used as alloy in manufacturing bronze were not very common and widely found. More over the expenses of making bronze were high at that time. Iron Age
 • It was the last principal period among the three-age system of prehistoric societies, preceded by the Bronze age.
 • The development of this era was due to the fact that people started using weapons and tools made by iron marked by other prominent changes in the society such as agricultural practices, religious belief and inclinations towards art. 
• The age began in the 6th century BCE in northern Europe and 8th century BCE in central Europe followed by12th century BCE in the ancient Near East, ancient Iran, ancient India, and ancient Greece. 
• In India the late Harappan Culture was marked with the Iron Age archaeological cultures of India with emphasis given on the Painted Grey Ware culture (1200 to 600 BCE) and the Northern Black Polished Ware (700 to 200 BCE).

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